This animated map reveals how the boundaries of the Indian subcontinent have developed for the reason that partition of 1947.
Seventy-five years in the past, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, a British lawyer, was appointed to attract the boundaries that will divide British-ruled India into two new, unbiased nations: Hindu-majority India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan.
He had solely 5 weeks to take action, whereas he had by no means traveled to India, which had been beneath British rule for 200 years.
The strains he drew are one of many largest pressured mass exodus in fashionable historical past, displacing some 15 million individuals and killing greater than two million.
The border between the 2 nations grew to become often called the Radcliffe Line and was formally declared on August 17, 1947, a number of days after the independence of India and Pakistan.
Radcliffe was stated to base his strains on the inhabitants of Muslims and Hindus, amongst “different components”. These extra components had been by no means formally outlined, however are believed to incorporate financial and communication assets akin to irrigation channels and railway strains.
Toggle via the choices displayed on the graphic beneath and draw strains on the map relying on the way you assume Radcliffe drew the boundaries.
The knowledge on inhabitants, railways and rivers is predicated on maps collected from The Imperial Gazetteer of India of 1931.
How India, Pakistan and Bangladesh had been shaped?
The method of partition was not straightforward. Along with British-controlled territories, the subcontinent additionally included greater than 500 sovereign principalities dominated by native kings, together with a number of different territories managed by French, Portuguese or Omani rule.
After independence, the British gave the princely states the choice to hitch India or Pakistan – by signing the Instrument of Accession – or to stay unbiased. A few of these territories and princely states didn’t grow to be a part of India or Pakistan till lately.
At the moment, Kashmir is the one area of British India that has not absolutely built-in into one of many two nations or achieved political independence.
Within the following two-minute animation, Al Jazeera appears to be like at how the Indian subcontinent was divided by the British in 1947 and the way it has modified since then.
In August 1947, the British ended their 200-year rule over the Indian subcontinent and cut up it into two separate nations, Hindu-majority India and predominantly Muslim Pakistan. Here is how the nation got here to be.@AJEnglish pic.twitter.com/105JwLPIRS
— AJ Labs (@ajlabs) 12 August 2022